Parents who choose not to vaccinate their children may find themselves refused from Queensland childcare centres under a new bill introduced into State Parliament.
Opposition leader Annastacia Palaszczuk said she was unashamedly following the lead set by NSW state Labor by putting the public health bill forward. Ms Palaszczuk said she hoped it received the same level of support.
"It's the right thing to do, it makes sense and I would be very surprised if there was any other member of parliament who did not support this initiative," Ms Palaszczuk said.
The Bill, to be introduced during the Thursday afternoon parliament session by shadow health minister Jo-Ann Miller will seek to "give children enrolled at child care centres and the staff who look after them protection from preventable infectious disease".
The law will make exceptions for those who can not receive vaccinations for medical reasons.
Ms Miller said it was "not about punishing parents" it was a "legally binding right to protect children".
Ms Miller said the National Health Performance Authority had found 70,000 children were not fully immunised in Australia, with the Sunshine Coast, north of Brisbane, named as the area with the state's lowest immunisation compliance rates.
"What we see in Queensland is a situation, particularly on the Sunshine Coast and in Brisbane, where the rates of vaccination are as low as Uganda and Angola. This is not acceptable in a first world country in Australia and it is not acceptable in Queensland," Ms Miller said.
"Our babies, our little ones are precious to all of us, we need to protect them all from some of the worst diseases and we really need to look after them."
The opposition said they were hoping for bipartisan support.
"It's the right thing to do, it makes sense and I would be very surprised if there was any other member of parliament who did not support this initiative"
We love to report on good news, and this certainly falls into that category! For the first time ever, a baby born infected with H.I.V. has been cured.
Dr. Hannah B. Gay, an associate professor of pediatrics, ordered two blood draws an hour apart to test for the presence of the virus’ RNA and DNA.
The tests found a level of virus at about 20,000 copies per milliliter, fairly low for a baby. But since tests so early in life were positive, it suggests the infection occurred in the womb rather than during delivery, Dr. Gay said.
Typically a newborn with an infected mother would be given one or two drugs as a prophylactic measure. But Dr. Gay said that based on her experience, she almost immediately used a three-drug regimen aimed at treatment, not prophylaxis, not even waiting for the test results confirming infection.
Virus levels rapidly declined with treatment and were undetectable by the time the baby was a month old. That remained the case until the baby was 18 months old, after which the mother stopped coming to the hospital and stopped giving the drugs.
When the mother and child returned five months later, Dr. Gay expected to see high viral loads in the baby. But the tests were negative.
Suspecting a laboratory error, she ordered more tests. “To my greater surprise, all of these came back negative,” Dr. Gay said.
Dr. Gay contacted Dr. Katherine Luzuriaga, an immunologist at the University of Massachusetts, who was working with Dr. Persaud and others on a project to document possible pediatric cures. The researchers, sponsored by amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research, put the baby through a battery of sophisticated tests. They found tiny amounts of some viral genetic material but no virus able to replicate, even lying dormant in so-called reservoirs in the body.
There have been scattered cases reported in the past, including one in The New England Journal of Medicine in 1995, of babies clearing the virus, even without treatment.
Those reports were greeted skeptically, particularly since testing methods were not very sophisticated back then. But those reports and this new one could suggest there is something different about babies’ immune systems, said Dr. Joseph McCune of the University of California, San Francisco.
One hypothesis is that the drugs killed off the virus before it could establish a hidden reservoir in the baby. One reason people cannot be cured now is that the virus hides in a dormant state, out of reach of existing drugs. When drug therapy is stopped, the virus can emerge from hiding.
“That goes along with the concept that, if you treat before the virus has had an opportunity to establish a large reservoir and before it can destroy the immune system, there’s a chance you can withdraw therapy and have no virus,” said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Adults, however, typically do not know they are infected right as it happens, he said.
Dr. Steven Deeks, professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, said if the reservoir never established itself, then he would not call it a true cure, though this was somewhat a matter of semantics. “Was there enough time for a latent reservoir, the true barrier to cure, to establish itself?” he said.
Still, he and others said, the results could lead to a new protocol for quickly testing and treating infants.
In the United States, transmission from mother to child is rare — several experts said there are only about 200 cases a year or even fewer — because infected mothers are generally treated during their pregnancies.
If the mother has been treated during pregnancy, babies are typically given six weeks of prophylactic treatment with one drug, AZT, while being tested for infection. In cases like the Mississippi one, where the mother was not treated during pregnancy, standards have been changing, but typically two drugs are used.
But women in many developing countries are less likely to be treated during pregnancy. And in South Africa and other African countries that lack sophisticated testing, babies born to infected mothers are often not tested until after six weeks, said Dr. Yvonne Bryson, chief of global pediatric infectious disease at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Dr. Bryson, who was not involved in the Mississippi work, said she was certain the baby had been infected and called the finding “one of the most exciting things I’ve heard in a long time.”
Studies are being planned to see if early testing and aggressive treatment can work for other babies. While the bone marrow transplant that cured Mr. Brown is an arduous and life-threatening procedure, the Mississippi treatment is not and could become a new standard of care.
While it might be difficult for some poorer countries to do, treating for only a year or two would be cost effective, “sparing the kid a lifetime of antiretroviral therapy,” said Rowena Johnston, director of research at amfAR.
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